Diseases That Start With L

Diseases That Start With L

Our focus for today is on the diseases that start with L.

Diseases are afflictions that can disrupt the normal processes of the human body and disrupt its metabolic and physiological balance. They can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, inflammation, genetics, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The classification of disease is based on various criteria, such as severity, duration, location, and etiology. Understanding and treating diseases is the focus of many branches of medical science, including epidemiology, immunology, and pharmacology.

I began my journey of compiling the list of diseases for each alphabet with a clear approach in mind. I knew that it was going to be an extensive task that required time and dedication. And so, I spent hours upon hours researching and cross-referencing to ensure I don’t miss any known condition that starts with each letter.

So, let’s begin exploring this list of diseases starting with L!


98 Diseases That Start With L

And here’s the list of diseases that begin with L letter.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor that grows uncontrollably in the lung tissue, and is mainly caused due to long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. The disease has high mortality rates due to its aggressive nature and the difficulty of detecting it at an early stage. Symptoms include coughing, difficulty breathing, chest pain, weight loss, and fatigue. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy.

Lysosomal beta-mannosidase deficiency

Lysosomal beta-mannosidase deficiency, also known as beta-mannosidosis, is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of complex sugars. The disease is characterized by developmental delays, intellectual disability, facial abnormalities, hearing loss, and skeletal abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on genetic testing, and treatment mainly involves managing the symptoms.

Locked-in syndrome

Locked-in syndrome is a rare neurological disorder where a person is aware and awake, but unable to move or communicate, except through eye movements or blinking. The condition is caused by damage to the brainstem and can be due to a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment mainly focuses on supportive care and communication aids to facilitate communication.


Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the bite of infected sand flies. The disease has several clinical forms, ranging from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral disease. Symptoms include skin ulcers, fever, weight loss, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Treatment options include antiparasitic drugs and supportive care.

Laryngeal neoplasm

Laryngeal neoplasm, also known as laryngeal cancer, is a malignant tumor that develops in the larynx or voice box. The disease is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Symptoms include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, coughing up blood, and persistent sore throat. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

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Lymphomatous thyroiditis

Lymphomatous thyroiditis is a rare form of thyroiditis that is characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland leading to the development of a malignant lymphoma. The disease can cause enlargement of the thyroid gland and compression of the nearby structures. Diagnosis is based on biopsy of the thyroid gland, and treatment involves surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.


Lymphangiectasis is a condition characterized by the dilation and obstruction of lymphatic vessels. The condition can occur due to genetic mutations, infections, or trauma. Symptoms include swelling, fluid build-up, and recurrent infections. Treatment mainly focuses on addressing the underlying cause and reducing symptoms.


Lymphosarcoma, also known as lymphoma, is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system. The disease is caused by abnormal growth of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapy.


Launois, also known as Madelung’s disease, is a rare disorder characterized by the development of multiple benign fatty tumors or lipomas, mainly around the neck, shoulders, and upper body. The disease is more common in middle-aged men and can cause cosmetic disfigurement and compression of nearby structures. Treatment mainly involves surgical removal of the lipomas.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by the bite of an infected tick. The disease is mainly prevalent in wooded areas and can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, headache, and skin rash. If left untreated, the infection can spread to the joints, heart, and nervous system. Treatment involves antibiotics and supportive care.

Livedoid dermatitis

Livedoid dermatitis, also known as segmental hyalinizing vasculitis, is a rare skin condition that is characterized by painful, reddish-purple skin lesions that often ulcerate. The condition is more common in women and can be associated with autoimmune diseases, blood clotting disorders, and infections. Treatment mainly involves addressing the underlying cause and reducing symptoms.

Laron-type dwarfism

Laron-type dwarfism, also known as growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by short stature and extremely low levels of growth hormones. The condition can cause developmental delays, obesity, and lack of sexual maturation. Diagnosis is based on genetic testing, and treatment mainly involves replacing the deficient hormones.

Lamellar recessive ichthyosis

Lamellar recessive ichthyosis is a rare genetic disorder that affects the skin’s ability to regenerate, leading to a scaly, thickened skin that resembles fish scales. The condition can be associated with eye and ear problems and can cause difficulty in movement. Treatment mainly involves skin care and management of associated symptoms.


Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, also known as Perthes disease, is a childhood condition where the blood supply to the hip joint is compromised, leading to the death of the affected bone. The disease is more common in boys, and symptoms include pain, limping, and stiffness in the hips. Treatment mainly involves surgery and physical therapy.


Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe form of epilepsy that usually develops in childhood and is characterized by multiple types of seizures, including atonic seizures or drop attacks. The condition can cause profound developmental delays, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. Treatment mainly involves antiepileptic drugs and supportive care.

Lobstein disease

Lobstein disease, also known as osteogenesis imperfecta, is a genetic disorder that affects the bones, leading to frequent fractures and deformities. The condition can also affect other tissues and can cause hearing loss, respiratory problems, and cardiovascular problems. Treatment mainly involves management of associated symptoms and physical therapy to prevent fractures.


Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by multiple abnormalities, including obesity, intellectual disability, blindness, and polydactyly. The condition can also affect other organs, including the kidneys, and can cause developmental delays and behavioral problems. Treatment mainly involves symptomatic management and supportive care.


Lipogranulomatosis, also known as Niemann-Pick disease, is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of fats in various tissues, including the liver, spleen, and brain. The condition can cause developmental delays, seizures, and progressive neurological problems. There is no cure for this disorder, and treatment mainly involves managing associated symptoms and supportive care.

Leigh disease

Leigh disease, also known as subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, is a rare genetic disorder that affects the central nervous system, leading to progressive neurological decline. The disease can cause seizures, ataxia, respiratory failure, and developmental delays. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and genetic testing, and treatment mainly involves supportive care and symptom management.

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Lupus erythematosus

This autoimmune disease causes inflammation in various parts of the body, including the skin, joints, and organs.

Lysosomal Storage Disease

A group of genetic diseases that result in the accumulation of toxic materials within cells due to enzyme deficiencies.

Lichen spinulosus

This dermatological condition presents as small, spiky bumps on the skin that may be itchy and develop in clusters.


A condition that causes swelling in the arms or legs due to a build-up of lymphatic fluid.


A congenital condition that causes the soft tissues of the larynx to collapse during breathing, resulting in noisy breathing or difficulty breathing.


A condition where thick, white patches form on the tongue, gums, or inner cheek, often as a result of smoking or tobacco use.


A type of food poisoning caused by ingesting food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes.

Langdon Down

This genetic disorder is characterized by intellectual disability and certain distinctive physical features, including a flattened facial profile and almond-shaped eyes.

Lowe Syndrome

This rare genetic disorder affects the brain, eyes, and kidneys, causing intellectual disability, cataracts, and kidney dysfunction.


This rare type of cancer, also known as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, occurs when certain immune cells in the body grow out of control and accumulate in organs like the liver, lungs, and bones.

Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system and the white blood cells called lymphoblasts.

Leri Pleonosteosis

A rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the bones and joints, causing stiffness and limited mobility.

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

A group of inherited conditions that cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting, typically affecting the muscles in the shoulders and hips.

Leiner Disease

Also known as congenital ichthyosis, this genetic disorder causes dry, scaly skin due to a lack of proper lipid production.

Lenz Microphthalmia Syndrome

A rare genetic disorder that affects eye development, causing small eyes (microphthalmia) or complete absence of one or both eyes (anophthalmia).

Lafora Disease

A rare genetic disorder that causes seizures, dementia, and muscle degeneration due to abnormal accumulation of a type of carbohydrate in the body.

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

See “Letterer”.

Lichen Planus

A condition that causes itchy, flat-topped bumps or rash on the skin, mouth, or genitals.


A condition that affects the inner ear, causing vertigo, hearing loss, and ringing in the ears.

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

A condition where the walls of the heart’s main pumping chamber (left ventricle) thicken, often due to high blood pressure or heart disease.

Lysosomal alpha-D-Mannosidase Deficiency

Also known as alpha-mannosidosis, this genetic disorder causes intellectual disability, facial abnormalities, and skeletal deformities.

Laryngeal Carcinoma

A type of cancer that affects the tissues of the larynx or voice box.


A parasitic insect that infests the hair and skin of humans and other animals.


A disorder characterized by intellectual disability, abnormally shaped fingers, and distinctive facial features.

Liddle syndrome

A rare genetic disorder that causes high blood pressure and low levels of potassium in the blood.


A form of cancer that affects the lymphatic system and causes abnormal growth of lymphocyte cells.

Lyngstadaas syndrome

A genetic condition that affects the development of teeth and causes dental abnormalities.

Levator syndrome

A chronic condition characterized by pain and discomfort in the rectum and pelvic area.

Leber optic atrophy

A genetic disorder that causes vision loss in both eyes, often leading to legal blindness.


A syndrome that affects the development of the brain and the musculoskeletal system, causing intellectual disability and physical abnormalities.

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis

A rare form of lymphoma that causes inflammation and damage to lung tissue.

Lymphedema distichiasis

A rare genetic condition that causes swelling and fluid buildup in the arms and legs, along with abnormal eyelash growth.

Liver cirrhosis

A progressive disease that damages the liver and can lead to liver failure.


A rare type of cancer that affects smooth muscle tissue, often occurring in the uterus, stomach, or intestines.

Labrador lung

A type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by exposure to moldy hay, typically affecting hunters and their dogs.


A bacterial infection that can cause flu-like symptoms, kidney damage, and in severe cases, liver failure and meningitis.

Listeria infection

A foodborne illness caused by consuming contaminated food, which can lead to severe infection and complications in vulnerable populations.

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A rare form of epilepsy that starts in childhood and causes seizures, cognitive impairment, and developmental delays.


A rare type of bone cancer that usually affects children and young adults.

Lobster hand

An occupational injury that results from prolonged exposure to cold water, causing numbness, swelling, and discoloration in the hands.

Loose anagen syndrome

A condition that affects hair growth and causes weak, easily pluckable hair that doesn’t grow long.


A compulsive gambling disorder that can lead to financial ruin, relationship problems, and mental health issues.


A neurological symptom that causes shock-like sensations down the back and into the limbs, usually triggered by neck flexion.


A rare condition characterized by an abnormal, air-filled sac that protrudes from the larynx.

Lumbar spinal stenosis

A narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower back, causing pain, weakness, and numbness in the legs.

L-transposition and ccTGA

Congenital heart defects affecting the structure of the heart and blood flow, which can cause severe health problems and require surgery.


A rare genetic disorder that affects insulin signaling, causing severe insulin resistance, growth retardation, and other health problems.

Liver neoplasms

Abnormal growths or tumors that form in the liver, which can be benign or malignant and may require treatment or surgery.

Lichen myxedematosus

A rare skin condition that causes thickening of the skin, often on the face and neck, and may be associated with an underlying autoimmune disease.

Lead poisoning

A condition caused by exposure to high levels of lead, which can lead to developmental delays, cognitive impairment, and other health problems.

Lymphomatoid Papulosis

A rare form of lymphoma that causes skin lesions, usually on the trunk and limbs, and is associated with a good prognosis.


A rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and skeletal abnormalities.

Lymphatic filariasis

A parasitic infection that causes lymphedema, or swelling of the arms and legs, and can lead to disability and disfigurement.

Ledderhose disease

A rare inherited connective tissue disorder which affects plantar fascia of the foot, causing painful nodules to develop.

Light chain disease

A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in bone marrow, producing abnormal proteins called light chains.

Lymphogranuloma venereum

A sexually transmitted infection caused by L1, L2, L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria that primarily infect lymphatic tissue.

Lamellar ichthyosis

A genetic skin disorder that causes dry and scaly skin due to the inability of the skin cells to properly mature and shed.

Larsen syndrome

An inherited connective tissue disorder that affects the development of bones and joints, causing joint dislocations and abnormal cartilage formation.


A rare lung disease that affects women, causing cystic changes in lung tissue and progressive loss of lung function.

Lymphocytic colitis

A type of inflammatory bowel disease that causes chronic diarrhea and inflammation of the colon.

Laryngeal papillomatosis

A rare type of HPV infection that causes benign tumors to grow in the larynx, leading to hoarseness and difficulty breathing.


An uncommon skin disorder that causes recurrent crops of pink or red papules and nodules, which over time may turn into large, scar-like lesions.


A noncancerous tumor that arises from smooth muscle cells, commonly found in the uterus, stomach, or esophagus.


A rare lung disease that affects women, characterized by an abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which leads to cystic changes and progressive lung dysfunction.


A type of brain damage that occurs in premature infants, characterized by the softening or death of brain tissue.


A malignant tumor that arises from fat cells, most commonly found in the thighs, abdomen, or retroperitoneal space.


A rare birth defect where a hole in the abdominal wall allows abdominal organs to protrude outside of the body.


A severe form of epilepsy that begins in early childhood and is characterized by multiple seizure types and cognitive impairment.

LCHAD deficiency

A rare metabolic disorder that affects the breakdown of fats for energy, resulting in low blood sugar, muscle weakness, and liver dysfunction.

Lassa fever

An acute viral illness that is transmitted through contact with contaminated rodent urine or feces and can cause hemorrhagic fever and multi-organ failure.

Lung neoplasm

A general term that refers to any abnormal growth or tumor in the lung, often associated with lung cancer.


A group of genetically inherited disorders that affect the white matter of the brain, leading to progressive neurological deterioration.


A chronic bacterial infection that affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes, causing disfiguring skin lesions and nerve damage.

Limb-body wall complex

A rare fetal malformation where defects in the abdominal wall and chest cavity lead to extrusion of internal organs and limb abnormalities.


A rare metabolic disease characterized by an accumulation of leucine in the blood and tissues, leading to neurological symptoms and intellectual disability.


A type of blood cancer that affects the lymphatic system, causing abnormal growth of lymphocytes and lymph nodes.


A type of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow and blood cells, causing abnormal growth of white blood cells and impaired immune function.

Lichen planus follicularis

An uncommon form of lichen planus that affects hair follicles on the scalp, causing scarring alopecia and erythematous papules.


A parasitic infection caused by the Loa loa worm, which is transmitted through the bite of infected deer flies and can cause localized skin swelling and blindness.

Wrapping Up

And that’s our list of L diseases.

As a medical enthusiast, compiling a list of diseases that starts with every letter of the alphabet was a fun and engaging task for me. I was determined to ensure that the list I created was accurate, authentic, and complete. Therefore, I left no stone unturned and verified every single medical term I came across.

The study of diseases highlights the importance of an integrated healthcare system aimed at combating them. This necessitates a coordinated approach between the government, NGO’s, medical professionals, and the individual in embracing healthy living practices as well as risk reduction strategies to combat the scourge of diseases.

Hope this post on diseases beginning with L alphabet has been useful to you!